Population survey of long-tailed and pig-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis & Macaca nemestrina) in Southern Sumatra by J.Supriatna, A.Yanuar, Martarinza, H.T.Wibisono, R.Sinaga, I.Sidik & S.Iskandar

(From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)

Observation on the abundance and distribution of the Celebes black macaque (Macaca nigra)-Results of recent censuses by B. Rosenbaum, T.O’Brien & M. Kinnaird, Wildlife Conservation Society

(From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


The primates of the Mentawai Islands: A Conservation imperative by Douglas Brandon-Jones, UK

The Mentawai archipelago, off the west coast of Sumatra, supports only four primate species, all of them endemic, and the most conspicuous element of its distinctive biogeography. One of them, the pig-tailed snub-nosed monkey, Nasalis concolor, is in some respects intermediate between the colobine genera, Nasalis and Pygathrix, otherwise known only from Borneo, Indochina, and China. The closest living relatives of the Mentawai Islands sureli, Prebytis potenziani are the Bornean and Sumatran populations of Prebytis comata. This disjunct distribution was interpreted by Brandon-Jones (1993) as the effects of at least two cold dry stadials during the most recent glaciation. The implication is that the Mentawai Islands fauna and flora includes a pre-glacial element, while that of Sumatra is predominantly, or exclusively, interstadial or post-glacial. It is probable that the relationship between the Mentawai Islands gibbon, Hylobates klossii, and the chromatically monomorphic gibbons of Java, north Borneo and north Sumatra parallels that between Prebytis potenziani and P. comata. The Mentawai Islands macaque, Macaca pagensis, although closely related to the pigtail macaque, M. nemestrina is a post-glacial derivative of M. pagensis. The absence from the Mentawai Islands of M. fascicularis and Semnopithecus cristatus, two primate species otherwise represented on many small islands, is also instructive, and reinforces the conclusion that the current pattern of Asian primate distribution is of comparatively recent development. This distribution is likely echoed in that of other animal and plant species. Their evolutionary significant warrants urgent conservation of this unique island habitat. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


Issues on the conservation and protection of the Moor Macaque (Macaca maurus) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia by Nengah Wirawan and Amran Achmad, Hasanuddin University, Makasar, Indonesia

This paper concerns with issues on the problems of conserving and protecting the Moor Macaque populations in South Sulawesi. By correlating their distributions with various aspects of their habitats (land systems, land use, and forest utilization status), we found the highly fragmented forests in this area have forced these macaque populations to live in isolated small islands of forest and damaged vegetation that are surrounded by fast areas of agricultural fields and settlements. As they regularly raid the agricultural crops in their surroundings, various measures have been made by the local farmers to chase and often kill this endemic macaques. With the forest islands and damaged vegetation tend to shrink in their sizes, the macaque-farmer conflicts tend to increase also. To protect and conserve this unique species, this conflict must be reduced if not stopped completely. Better food availability in their habitats must be made. Reforestation of degraded forest lands with mixed multipurpose species that are also useful as food plants for the macaques should be considered as high priority in government forest lands. For determining appropriate actions on macaque populations living in isolated small forest islands and damaged vegetation that are surrounded by agricultural field and settlement areas, further detailed studies, such as their population sizes, structure and floristic composition of their habitats, phenology of important food plants, and socio-economic status of the surrounding communities are necessary. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


Habitat and conservation of Ebony leaf monkey in decideous forest (teak) in Centra Jawa by Djuwantoko, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Intensive teak forest management in order to maintain the production of timber using a clear-cutting method with artificial regeneration, and the soci0-economic impact from local communities, the primates (particularly ebony leaf monkey or Trachypithecus auratus) habitat in teak forests must be changed. Another factor which cause detrimental effects to the population number of this primate is illegal hunting conducted by local people for commercial and food purposes. This paper will discuss about how conservation action should be conducted for conserving the ebony leaf monkey in the teak forest ecosystem and to solve those problem as well. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


Effects of hunting and live capture of wild populations of the crested black macaque (Macaca nigra) in North Sulawesi by Rob Lee, Oregon University

Hunting has had devastating effects upon wild population of the crested black macaque outside of Tangkoko Nature Reserve. Previous surveys have indicated a dramatic decline in M. nigra with hunting attributed as one of the major causes of this decline. Forest, roadside, market, and village surveys were conducted during September 1993 and June/July 1994 to assess the status of wild populations in regard to the effects of hunting and live capture. Surveys in Manembo-nembo Nature Reserve indicate that hunting and live trapping, in concert with some habitat disturbance, have contributed to monkey populations moving toward the central areas where human pressures are not as high as in the peripheral areas. Monkeys are hunted primarily for food, but capturing of monkeys also contributes to a large pet market. As Manembo-nembo constitutes one of the largest areas that M. nigra occupies outside of the contiguos reserves of Tangkoko-Duasaudara-Batuangus, it and the surrounding areas should be monitored, studies, and protected. It is important to establish conservation work in areas where there are viable wild populations of M. nigra. In addition, ecological studies of other threatened flora and fauna should be undertaken. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


Density and abundance of Kalimantan’s primates with special focus on West and Central Kalimantan by Achmad Yanuar, Chairul Saleh, Jito Sugardjito, and I Made Wedana, YABSHI, National University, Padjajaran University

The island of Kalimantan is home to thirteen species of primates, five of which are listed as endangered. These include the orangutan, gibbons (Hylobates mulleri and H. agilis), proboscis monkey, and white-fronted langur. Among these species, the orangutan is considered most vulnerable due to hunting pressure and habitat loss. This paper presents the results of field surveys undertaken at twelve different, randomly chosen sites in West and Central Kalimantan. Surveys were conducted from June through October 1991. Study sites ranged across a variety of topographical gradients, and four forest types (swamp, riverine, lowland, and hill) were represented. Each site was approximately 11,5km2. Line transects were used to record the presence of primate groups, and primate density was calculated.

A total of nine species of diurnal primates were observed. The Maroon langur occured in all four forest types, and was most common in lowland forest. The white-fronted langur was found at low density only in the hill forest type. Primates with the highest observed density were the Proboscis monkey and Long-tailed macaque, and both species occurred primarily in riverine forest. Long-tailed macaque also occur in lowland and hill forest, while Pig-tailed macaques occur only in hill forest. Similarly, the Muller’s gibbon occurs chiefly in hill forest, while the Agiel gibbon abounds in lowland areas, although both species occur in peat swamp forests. Orangutan occurred rarely in two Central Kalimantan localtions only: Sungai Hibur (lowland) and Sungai Mengkutup (riverine). Forest degradation continues to be a chief factor in threatening Kalimantan primate population levels, as evidenced by population level differences in unlogged, old-logged, and recently logged forest. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


Agroforest area (Damar plantation): One of the alternative for primate conservaiton in-situ in Sumatra by Tulus TH Sibuea, Padjajaran University

One of the main problems of primate conservation is the decreased of forest and habitat loss. The villains accused of causing the forest to be destroyed are usually the local tropical farmers. Any felling of trees and uncovering of forest will bring about consequences on the species of primate living in them. The agroforestry system in an alternative form offered and expected to be of benefits to farmers of tropical regions and the conservation of primates. This system is a result of farmers development and provides contribution to environmental conservation and land use. Especially for primates, the existence of agroforest supports the conservation action in situ. The results of research in Krui Lampung, it shows that primates were able to be survive and enlarge population in the agroforest area (damar plantation). From the results of primate observation done in resin plantation of 1000 ha showed that there are 7 species of primates of 3 families (Lorisidae, Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae). This is a great contribution from farmer to the conservation of primates. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


A conservation study of the Javan gibbon (Hylobates molloch) in Situ Gunung Tourist Park, West Java, Indonesia by M. Taufan Suranto. Padjajaran University, Bandung, Indonesia

A conservation study of the Javan Gibbon was conducted from January to April 1994 in Situgunung Tourist Park, West Java. The purpose of the study was to collect data necessary for improved conservation management of this threatened primate. Daya collection methods included field survey and interviews. Four groups of gibbon occur in the study area, with mean density of 1.6 individuals/km2. The habitat preference of gibbon include both hill and riverine forest, dominated by Quercus sp., Lithocarpus sp, Litsea sp, Castanea argentia, and Schima wallichii. Park visitation was found to have impacted gibbon activities such as morning calls, and ranging behavior. Gibons have notbeen hunted in the park, and it was reported that local residents believed collection of this species to be taboo. However, one local resident possesses a pet gibbon, reportedly captured in South Cianjur. Park staff have worked to enforce regulations regarding gibbon conservation. However, the author concludes that local community awareness of conservation efforts needs to be increased. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia).


Type One Long Calls (TOLC) in Pheasants and monkeys: An example of convergence in calling behavior by Mochamad Indrawan, Suer Suryadi, & Richard Tenaza. University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

Loud spacing calls are widespread in primates and large gallinaceous birds. In primates, these calls have been called Type One Long Calls (TOLCs), and the authors suggest that the same term can be applied to analogous bird calls. Despite the similarities in calling behavior, no detailed comparisons have been made between the loud calls of gallinaceous birds and primates. This study found one similar calling pattern in the Argus Pheasant (Argusianus argus), Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus), Pig-tailed Langur (Simias concolor), and the Mentawai leaf monkey (Presbytis ptenziani). For these species, the TOLC is made regularly by adult males and delivered from situations of limited visibility. Sudden disturbnaces also induce TOLCs. The TOLC appeares to be contagious, especially among neighboring individuals in the same habitat. The authors suggest that future research which examines sonogram comparisons of TOLCs from gallinaceous birds and monkeys will yield interesting clues concerning similarities in their vocal characteristics. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia).


Early sign learning performance in an free-ranging, adult Orangutan in Tanjung Puting National Park, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia by Gary L. Shapiro & Birute M.F. Galdikas

Most researchers have employed young apes in sign language studies for the purpose of investigating early communicative and cognitive development in species which normally do not acquire language. Because of their strength and more independent temperment, adult apes have not been used unless they have already had signing experience as youngsters or have an established relationship with a caregiver permitting safe handling. This paper reports on a study in which an ex-captive, adult female orangutan, Rini, was given sign language training within the Tanjung Puting Nature Reserve (now national park) in Central Kalimantan.

The results of the study show that free-ranging orangutans will volitionally attend interactive sessions of up to an hour to receive standard sign training. During the first several months of training, Rini learned over a dozen signts which were produced in combination to request items of interest (consumable and body contact) from her trainer. She also learned to produce signs to identify non-food referents. Interesitingly, she invented several signs of her own (you, that/there. groom, scratch) and integrated them appropriately into her signed combinations. It appeared that the rate of early sign development in the adult orangutan was greater than that of a juvenile receiving the same type of sign training. Factors such as motivation, individual trainer, and referent type influenced signing performance (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia).


The activity budget and energy requirement of wild Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in the mangrove forests of Kutai National Park, East Kalimantan by M.Bismark, Djokowoerjo Sasatrapradja, Ishemat Soerianegara, FORDA Ministry of Forestry & IPB

The time budget of the Proboscis Monkey in the riverine mangrove forest habitat of Kutai National Park was observed from May 1993 to February 1994. Data were collected by the scan technique. The time budget was determined by the activity proportion of female, sub-adult, and juvenile individuals in four troops of monkeys. Mean troop size was 21 individuals. Monkey activities over a 13 hour daily activity period included 42.3% for rest, 25.2% for movement, 23.2% for foraging activity, and 9.3% for social activities. Daily range averaged 497M. Average animal weight was 8.8kg, and average energy consumption was estimated at 781.6 kcal/day. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia).


Habitat use by Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Teak forest plantations. By Djuwantoko, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta-Indonesia

This study assessed the use of habitat type elements (e.g. food, cover, vertical strata, home range) in teak (Tectona grandis) forest plantations in Java, by Long-tailed macaques. Because of current silvicultural practices such as clear-cutting and artificial regeneration, it has been observed that monkey populations are often disturbed and displaced. A survey was conducted in teak forest plantations at Cepu, Central Java. A single troop of monkeys was studied, using scan technique sampling. Troop range was 46.5 ha during dry season, and 89.2 ha during the rainy season. Length of day travel ranged from 480 to 1160M, and 980 to 1840M, during the dry and rainy season respectively. Five habitat types were used: 1) old teak forest (44.8%), 2) middle age teak forest (20.7%), 3) young teak forest (9.0%), 4) gallery forest (9.6%), and 5) young teak forest mixed with crops (taungya system, locally known as tumpang sari) (15.9%). (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


Feeding behavior of Javan leaf monkey (Presbytis comata comata) in Lake Pantengan, West Java by I Made Wedana Adi Putra, Padjajaran University, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

This study focus on feeding behavior aspects of the Javan leaf monkey (Presbytis comata comata), including the determination of food plants, food items, and consumed proportion. Activity patterns of individuals were observed and described using the focal animal and scan sampling methods. A 50M2 grids were set up over the home range of one troop, to facilitate the mapping of ranging activities. Plot sampling was used to determine vegetation characteristics of the forest habitat.

Following the general tendency of coloboid monkeys, Javan leaf monkeys are pure vegetarians. A total of 42 plant species were recorded in dietary intake. Dietary intake was 78.6% leaves, and the remaining percentage fruit, seeds, flowers, petioles, shoots, and buds. Animal fed primarily in the upper and medium canopy layers. Feeding at ground level was observed in a few cases, but animals were never observed drinking water. Over a ten day period, day range averaged 318.6 meters. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


Feeding and Ranging Behavior of Buton Macaque (Macaca brunnescens) at Buton Utara Game Reserve, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia by Dedi Supriyadi, A.H. Pramono, & J. Supriatna; University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

Feeding and ranging behavior of Buton Macaques was observed for more than 300 hours, at the Buton Utara Game Reserve. Data showed that feeding and ranging activities were mostly restricted to the middle and upper canopy levels. Analysis of dietary proportion showed that more than half of the diet was derived from fruit. Foraging activity usually commenced in the morning with a single troop. This congregation broke down into groups of 4 to 6 individuals as the day progressed, in apparent reaction to patchy distribution of food resources. Activity peaked during the mid-morning and mid-afternoon, while rest usually occurred during mid-day. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


Ecology and Sociology of the All-Male Group of Thomas’ Leaf Monkey by Kunkun Jaka Gurmaya; Padjajaran University, West Java, Indonesia

This study would contribute the information on the socio-ecological life of the all-male group of the genus Presbytis, mainly Presbytis thomasi. The ten members all-male group of Thomas’ Leaf-monkey resided 1,74 ha homerange or about 10% of the one-male group’s. The daily activities and forest strata utilization patterns resembled the one-male group’s. A specific bahaviour of “embracing-mounting-grooming” was frequently shown by a member to approach a more dominant one. This behaviour seemed to be a mechanism to avoid severe agonistic relationships, to maintain a dominance hierarchy and to tight all members to be in a unity group. A fight of took-over leadership and changed of dominance hierarchy happened between Alpha and Beta, resulted a wounded Alpha. The fight happened one week after the former Alpha lost the fight against the leader (male) of a neighbouring one-male group. (From XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 2-8 August 1994, Kuta-Bali, Indonesia)


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